Find the cultivation periods of the main vegetables and aromatic herbs: sowing, planting, harvest.
For more details about cultivation advice, you can access the “plant” sheets linked to each on the headings of the table. You will find information on the period of sowing or planting, details on the nature of the soil, exposure, but above all advice for success and care for your crops.
All the cards do not quite exist, the task is tough ;-), I write them every day ... with one brain, 2 hands, and the working day ... As my grandmother said, every day is enough time and both the jug in the water and at the end ... You know the tragic result!
The list is not exhaustive and will be completed over the long term,
or (- or transplanting)
JuneJul Aug Sep Sep Nov Dec Sowing and planting asparagus
Swiss chard or chard or perry ...
onions (yellow and red)
Tuberous parsley (large root parsley)
Pumpkin or pumpkin
Oregano / marjoram
Rosemary> Harvest year +1
Tips for a successful sowing of vegetables
Text and photo by Albert Mondor, horticulturalist and biologist
The current pandemic is causing great concern among the population about its economic and social consequences. Among other things, some fear that this crisis will affect the supply of fruits and vegetables. This is why many citizens are turning to urban agriculture in order to produce their own food and thus aim for a certain food self-sufficiency.
Indeed, the enthusiasm for gardening and urban agriculture was unprecedented last summer and this wave is expected to continue to sweep over Quebec this summer. Thus, according to some surveys, one in five people started a garden in Canada in 2020. In addition, among the 3.5 million Quebec households, some 2.9 million practice gardening, or 83%. Of this number, it is estimated that two-thirds grow vegetables and herbs in their garden or on their balcony! In short, this need of citizens to grow their own fruits and vegetables is more of a passing fad but a deep need.
The practice of urban agriculture is undoubtedly the best way to gain some food autonomy and reduce our dependence on industrial food networks. However, before making a vegetable garden, you have to sow seedlings! In addition to the pleasure of making your own seedlings, this activity is an economical and ecological way to start a vegetable garden.
Here are some tips for successful sowing.
You don't have to buy a sophisticated growing system to plant your vegetables and herbs. It is quite possible to make your seedlings in simple pots or plastic boxes recovered. The plastic containers in which BBQ chicken and mixed salads are sold in supermarkets are excellent containers for seedlings.
However, you must make sure that the recovered containers that you use are perfectly cleaned, ideally disinfected with bleach - if they have already been used for sowing in the past - in order to avoid the spread of diseases such as as damping-off.
Use a light potting soil rich in compost
The potting soil you use for your seedlings must above all be light, well ventilated and it must adequately retain water and nutrients. Avoid black soil and do not use soil from your garden either, since in addition to possibly carrying pathogens, it is generally too heavy and too poorly ventilated to give the expected results.
Instead, use a commercial substrate sold in bags and specially designed for seedlings consisting primarily of sphagnum peat moss. In addition, it is desirable that the chosen soil contains compost and a mycorrhizal fungus. The mycellium of mycorrhizal fungi attaches to plants and acts as an extension of their root system, allowing the latter to better obtain water and nutrients, thus ensuring more abundant flowering and fruiting. If the potting soil you purchased does not contain mycorrhizae, you can add a small handful and mix it with the potting soil when sowing.
The beneficial microorganisms provided by the compost and the presence of a mycorrhizal fungus will reduce the chances of fungal or bacterial diseases developing and attacking young, freshly sprouted plants. Moisten the soil well before using it.
Follow the instructions on the seed packets
Once the potting soil has been mixed and moistened, pour it into a container and even out its surface well by pressing it with a small piece of wood. Rather than putting all the seeds in one container, you can place them in a container made up of several small compartments, which will greatly facilitate transplanting.
The seeds of some species of vegetable plants should not be buried under the substrate since light is necessary for their germination, while several others must be covered with a thickness of potting soil of about 6 mm because they need darkness to germinate or, at least, light is not necessary for their germination.
Additionally, to prevent wilting, most edible tropical plants such as tomatoes and peppers are seeded indoors in March or April, just a few weeks before transplanting outdoors. Other plants like carrots, lettuce and radishes can be sown outdoors in May, directly in the ground. Indoor sowing is often unnecessary for these plants adapted to cool climates.
Carefully read the instructions on each bag of seeds since it specifies, among other things, whether the seeds should be covered with potting soil or not, the optimum germination temperature and the time at which the sowing should be carried out is given.
If you have any seeds left, seal the bag tightly with tape and place it in the refrigerator in an airtight plastic container; most seeds can remain viable for a little over a year.
Use an LED lighting system
The sunlight that enters through the windows of a house or apartment is often not sufficient for the proper growth of most edible plants. This is why it is recommended to do your seedlings under lights that work with light emitting diodes. Although not perfect, LEDs have many advantages as they are energy efficient, recyclable, contain no mercury, emit little heat, and have a lifespan of over 50,000 hours.
The LEDs used in lamps designed for growing plants often come in the form of strips on which they are grouped. You can find on the market strips including blue, red and infrared diodes, which are perfectly suitable for plants. Infrared wavelengths - invisible to the human eye - allow, among other things, to limit the attacks of certain diseases that affect seedlings.
Keep the soil constantly moist
Most seeds will germinate well if they have constant high humidity, around 80%. To avoid having to water all the time, you can cover your seedling containers with clear plastic domes. In addition to preventing the evaporation of water, such a dome acts like a greenhouse by maintaining a warm and stable temperature. If water droplets form on the walls of the dome, then it should be opened slightly for a few hours so that the excess moisture evaporates.
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Seeding indoors isn't rocket science. Insert two or three small seeds into a pot filled with potting soil, water the potting soil, place the pot in a well-lit place, but not in direct sunlight, at room temperature, and cover everything with a transparent plastic dome to maintain high humidity, that's all. In 7 to 21 days, small plants emerge from the soil and then we remove the dome and start to maintain them more diligently. At least, that's the basis of their culture.
Read the bag
Usually all important sowing information is written on the seed packet. In short, maybe, but the details are there. In particular, we indicate: if this plant prefers sowing indoors or in the ground the recommended date for sowing, usually expressed as "number of weeks before transplanting outdoors", usually June 10 in the region de Québec for vegetables that are fragile in the cold such as tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers.
Seeding depth and spacing
Any special need, if there is any. Some seedlings need light to germinate, for example, or it is recommended to soak them in lukewarm water 24 hours before sowing. Use a small pot… but not too small. For seedlings, a small pot of 6 to 7.5 cm is sufficient. You can use a small individual pot, but the multi-cell trays are also very practical.
You can also recycle all kinds of containers for this purpose (yogurt pots, coffee glasses, etc.) if you drill a drainage hole at the bottom. However, avoid very small containers: egg cartons, hollowed-out eggshells, ice cube trays, etc. The seedlings germinate well there, then wither due to lack of space for their roots.
To start, you need heat
A warm enough temperature (21-24 ° C) will stimulate superior germination, but sometimes the window sill is rather cool at night in this season. It can be useful, then, to place a cardboard box between the window and the shelf at night or to place the pots on a heating mat (available in garden centers).
Afterwards, the freshness
Yes, oddly enough, after germination, which is the magical moment when a little seedling emerges from the seed you sowed, it prefers more freshness, especially at night. The heating mat is no longer needed and the windowsill, too cool just a few days ago, is suddenly at the perfect temperature!
A maximum of sun
Usually after germination and once the dome is removed, you need full sun or as close to full sun as you can afford. Seedlings can also be grown under a fluorescent or LED light, hanging the light 6 to 12 inches from their heads. Add a timer and set it for 12-16 hours a day.
Don't forget to water
Once the plant has germinated, it uses more water. Check daily (and I'm not exaggerating), as sometimes the seedlings go from wet to dry in just 24 hours. Dry potting soil will be lighter in color than wet potting soil and will of course also be dry to the touch.
Water by soaking
Watering over it sometimes upsets small plants. So pour lukewarm water into the pan instead, enough to cover the bottom well. The water will rise in the soil by capillary action. After 20 to 30 minutes, drain off any excess water. It’s that easy!
Don't forget to fertilize
The seed itself provides all the minerals that the seedling needs at the start. But once the little plant has 4 or 6 "true leaves" there, its food starts to run out. It is therefore useful to water weekly with a soluble fertilizer at ¼ of the recommended dose.
Give a quarter turn
Give the tray a quarter turn every 3 or 4 days. Otherwise, the seedlings will lean towards the light source.
Acclimatize your seedlings
Acclimatize your seedlings to outdoor conditions over about a week, first in shade, then in partial shade, then in sun, before transplanting them into the ground. Otherwise, they will burn. And There you go! With these 10 tips, you will have a superb production of vegetables to transplant in the summer.
MAINTENANCE OF THE WEEK
ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS
What is the difference between a succulent plant and a cactus? Can I combine the two in one pot?
A succulent plant is a plant that stores sap in its stems or swollen leaves. Thus, it is "full of juice" (succulent). Succulents come from arid climates where it often does not rain for several months. In the house, we water them normally, when the soil feels dry to the touch, from March to September, but let them dry out more in the fall and winter. They prefer full sun, or at the very least bright lighting, all year round. Popular succulents include crassula (jade plant), aloe, sedum, echeveria, and haworthia. They belong to several different families.
Cacti are a subgroup of succulents, belonging to their own family, the Cactaceae. Almost exclusively from the New World, they have swollen stems, usually no leaves (they photosynthesize from their green stems) and most are covered with thorns. They are instantly distinguished from other succulents by their areolas, small, fluffy cushions from which thorns, stems and flowers emerge, a trait not shared by any other plant in the world.
Their maintenance of cacti and other succulents is similar, but most cacti prefer noticeably cool temperatures in winter (below 15 ° C) and almost no watering, while the majority of other succulents prefer temperature. of the room and watering a little more assiduous during the winter. Thus, it is difficult to get them to share the same pot, especially in the long run.
I received this plant as a gift. What's happening to him? Can I treat her?
— Martine Quirion
It is a cutting of a hoya leaf called a love hoya (Hoya kerrii) because of its shape which is reminiscent of a heart. It is often sold on Valentine's Day as a gift plant. Usually the cutting takes root, but never produces a plant (no stem, no flowers, no new leaves) and, in fact, does not grow at all, but stays set. Despite everything, the leaf can often live for several years before dying its beautiful death. All it needs is good lighting, normal indoor temperatures, and modest watering.
That said, your leaf is rotting. Rot is a fungal or bacterial disease that can appear without an explanation, but is often associated with poor lighting or overwatering. Unfortunately, there is nothing to be done when the rot is very advanced, as in this case. Your "plant" is dying.
One suggestion: If you are interested in the heart-shaped fleshy leaf of the love hoya, why not buy a plant of this hoya rather than a leaf cutting? The plant will grow and produce more leaves, possibly even flowers. And it is much more robust than a single leaf and is more likely to withstand any early rot.
Any questions please!
You can reach us by email at [email protected] or by mail at:
The Lazy Gardener
C.P. 1547, succ. Terminus
Quebec (Quebec) G1K 7J6
Are you looking for horticultural activities to fill your free time? Here are a few for the coming days ...
Radio CKIA and Facebook Live
The radio and virtual broadcast The Lazy Gardener with Larry Hodgson is available for free Wednesdays at 10 a.m. on CKIA-FM88,3 and on facebook.com/JardinierParesseux.
Urban agronomist Lili Michaud offers the online training The vegetable garden: planning, development and maintenance. It’s almost three hours of training divided into 10 lessons of 12 to 28 minutes that you can take in the comfort of your own home, when you want and at your own pace. For beginners or experienced gardeners. Cost: $ 30 + taxes.
Finally, the nutritional requirements are indicative, you do not have to add compost to succeed in the cultivation, but if the latter fails, it may be because you have not fed your plants enough. Requirements are expressed in three categories: low: no need for compost, or only 1 kg or less per m². medium: add between 1 and 3 kg of blackberry compost per m². strong: add 3 kg or more of ripe compost per m².
Normally, if your crops are doing well, stick to one mulch per year, plus green manure if possible. The average recommended dose for maintaining soil fertility is around 2 to 4 kg of dry matter per m² cultivated per year. If your vegetable garden is 100m², you will need to add around 200 kg of dry organic matter per year (all materials combined: straw, hay, kitchen waste, etc.)
Planting is intended for germinated plants that have reached a certain level of development. Transplanting consists of transplanting a plant from seedlings, in a nursery, a dedicated transition location in the vegetable garden, or directly in the ground.
To plant these young seedlings with bare roots, it is advisable to use a sharp tool, the dibble. If you are selecting plants from your seedlings, choose the well-formed, stocky plants rather than the taller ones.
The transplantation seedlings in pots (purchased or after sowing) can be done with a transplanter shovel. It opens a hole large enough to install the root ball. Just before planting, dressing can be done, which consists of cutting the damaged roots into a clean section. This helps to develop the network of shallow roots. Similarly for some plants in pots with a root bun, cutting a few roots will facilitate recovery. And finally, don't forget to water your plantations!