Read all parts of the article "Cultivation of sweet pepper in the conditions of the Leningrad region"
Part 1. Botanical characteristics of sweet pepper
Part 2. Requirements for the growing conditions of sweet pepper
Part 3. Growing seedlings, varieties and hybrids of peppers, suitable for the North-West
Part 4. Agrotechnology of peppers in film greenhouses
Part 5. Diseases and pests of peppers
Success growing pepper largely depends not only on the timely and complete implementation of all agricultural practices, but also, above all, on the correct choice of a variety, a hybrid capable of producing high full-fledged yields in the specific conditions of garden plots.
The State Register of Breeding Achievements for 2005 includes 184 varieties and hybrids. However, in order not to be mistaken with the choice, one should give preference to those varieties that the State Variety Testing Inspectorate has recommended for use in our region. And from this assortment, you can choose a variety or hybrid to your taste.
The most versatile and plastic of them is the Tenderness variety. It is distinguished by its mid-early ripening, medium height. The height of the bush in film greenhouses is up to 100 cm. Fruits are truncated-pyramidal, large, with an average weight of 75-100 g, thick-walled (6-8 mm). Their color in technical ripeness is light green, in biological ripeness - red. The skin is tender, the flesh is very juicy. Fruiting occurs 115-120 days from germination. Productivity in film greenhouse - 5-7 kg / m². The variety is very plastic, gives a stable harvest every year.
Since we are creating artificial conditions for peppers, a good harvest can be obtained from almost all recommended varieties and hybrids. Anyone who wants to get the earliest fruits can grow the varieties Winnie the Pooh, Agapovsky, Snow White, Loyalty, Gourmet, Dolphin, Kindness, Ermak, Eroshka, Health, Kapitoshka, Kolobok, Oriole, Magician, Medal, Funtik, Postrel, Amber, hybrids Arap F1, Bagration F1, Pinocchio F1, Dobryak F1, Zenith F1, Mercury F1, Othello F1, Raisa F1, Chrysolite F1, Elephant F1.
Lovers of very large fruits can grow productive hybrids with a fruit weight of 200-300 grams - Blondie F1, Yellow Bull NK F1, Ilya Muromets F1, Indago F1, Cardinal F1, Montero F1, Orange Miracle F1, Purple Bell F1.
Those gardeners who love peppers with yellow fruits can choose varieties and hybrids Zlatozar, Zolotinka F1, Ivolga, Keralla F1, Yaroslav.
Hybrids Shokoladka F1 and Othello F1 have brown coloration of fruits, purple - hybrid Cardinal F1, golden-white - variety Belozerka, silver-white - hybrid Fidelio F1, yellow-orange - variety Firefly, dark red - hybrids Nochka F1, Tibul F1, varieties Ruby, Jupiter.
It is possible to get a guaranteed yield of sweet pepper in the climate of the Leningrad region and the North-West region only in a protected soilusing a seedling growing method.
The yield of pepper largely depends on the age and quality of the seedlings. The optimum age for seedlings is 60-65 days. Unlike tomatoes, the seedlings of peppers do not stretch and by the time of planting they have 20-25 cm, 7-9 true leaves and the first buds.
When choosing the time for sowing pepper for seedlings, it should be borne in mind that pepper seeds germinate tightly (for 8-10 days, therefore they are prepared before sowing. As for tomato seeds, disinfection is carried out in potassium permanganate (1 g of potassium permanganate per 0.5 l water), washed with running water and soaked in a solution of wood ash (2 tablespoons per 1 liter of water) for a day.Then, without rinsing, the seeds are germinated in a damp cloth at a temperature of 25-30 ° C, the seeds are pecked for 4-5 days ...
Seedlings must be grown in pots 8x8 or 10x10 cm in size. Seedlings grown in pots tolerate transplanting better and give a more reliable harvest. The pots are filled with a nutrient mixture (1-2 parts of peat, 5 parts of humus, 3-4 parts of turf or garden soil and 100-200 g of wood ash per bucket of mixture). The pots are not filled to the very top, leaving 2-3 cm for the subsequent filling of the soil. Then they are spilled with warm potassium permanganate (red solution) with the addition of fertilizers and chalk.
Sprouted seeds are laid out one at a time (for insurance, you can take two, but then one strongest plant is left), slightly covered with the same mixture and covered with plastic wrap until shoots appear, so that the soil does not dry out.
As soon as shoots appear, the boxes are placed in the brightest and coolest place. The first 3-4 days the temperature during the day is maintained within 15-17 ° С, at night 12-14 ° С. Subsequently, the temperature is maintained at 20-24 ° C. Regulate it by opening and closing the vents.
Growing pepper seedlings is also allowed with a pick of pre-grown seedlings in the phase of 2-3 true leaves. After picking, the plants are watered with warm water and set in a shaded place for two days. Then the seedlings are placed on a windowsill, where there is good enough lighting.
Sowing seeds for heated greenhouses should be carried out in early February, for film shelters and unheated greenhouses - in late February-early March, since planting seedlings in a permanent place can be carried out not earlier than the end of May due to unstable weather, as well as the possibility of a return of cold weather and frost. Seedlings planted in early February will outgrow. In pots, even 10x10 cm in size, there will not be enough soil for a developed root system, therefore, shedding of flowers and ovaries or the formation of defective fruits on the first tier when planting in a greenhouse is very often observed.
In addition, it should be borne in mind that if the seedlings are grown from February-March, when the natural daylight hours are short, it is necessary to illuminate it with 120-300 W fluorescent lamps per 1 m² with a light period of 13-14 hours. Uniform illumination is achieved by rearranging the plants, turning them on different sides to the light.
The temperature is maintained at 22-25 ° C on sunny days, 18-20 ° C on cloudy days, 15-17 ° C at night. Water the plants with warm water (22-25 ° C). Watering is carried out rarely, but abundantly, in the morning hours.
Care of the seedlings must be very careful, since only in this case it is possible to grow good-quality seedlings - strong, short, with a thick stem, stocky, healthy, ensuring high yields.
You can not pamper the seedlings, allow them to stretch. On the other hand, the stems should not be lignified, that is, premature aging of plants should not be allowed.
Correct watering and adherence to the thermal regime can avoid the disease of blackleg peppers.
During the growing period, the seedlings are fed twice: the first time in the phase of 1-2 true leaves - 5 g of ecofosca are taken per 1 liter of water, the second time - in the phase of 4-5 true leaves at the rate of 6 g of superphosphate and 3 g of potassium sulfate per 1 l of water. For 10-12 plants, 2 liters of water are consumed.
Plants are hardened 10-12 days before planting. To do this, pots with seedlings are taken out to the balcony at an outside air temperature of at least 12-13 ° C. First, they are there for 2-3 hours, then the time is increased to 10-12 hours, and 3-5 days before disembarkation, the seedlings are left overnight, if frosts are not expected.
Seedlings are planted under a film on May 15-20, but during this period there is a danger of spring frosts, and in this case it is necessary to cover the seedlings inside the greenhouse with a second film using metal arcs, and also to carry out abundant irrigation by sprinkling.
Read part 4. Agrotechnology of peppers in film greenhouses
N. Lapikov, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, VIR them. N. I. Vavilova
Tomato "Katya F1" is an ultra-early hybrid with excellent varietal and commercial characteristics. The variety quickly gained popularity among gardeners, conquering them with the simplicity of agricultural technology and the taste of the fruit. Let's find out what else is remarkable about "Katya", how to plant and grow it?
So, dear friends, after reading the previous articles, you are probably thinking about planting lemon, dill, parsley or cilantro at home. Maybe some of you have already planted these plants? Then let's talk about the next inhabitant of our windowsill - sweet pepper.
Sweet pepper is very beautiful for its tight fruits, bright, tasty, filled with vitamins. It is him that we lack so much on rainy autumn days, on harsh winter weekdays, and during spring beriberi.
Do you want to admire the pepper and eat it all year round? In this case, feel free to start landing. pepper on his windowsill, as these plants are ideal for home care and cultivation.
Compact, undersized varieties of pepper (they are the most unpretentious and persistent) will be ideal for planting at home. The growth of this plant will reach half a meter and it will perfectly fit into the size of your window. The best varieties:
These varieties of pepper are distinguished by high yields, they will delight you with their attractive fruits all year round.
To rid future plants of infections, the seeds should be kept for 20 minutes in a 2% solution of potassium permanganate, then rinsed with cool water. And soak in nutrient solutions of epin or zircon (growth biostimulants):
In the healing solution, the seeds should be kept for about a day at room temperature. Then place them in damp gauze and place them in a dark, warm place.
Keep the pepper seeds there for 3 days at a temperature of + 20 ° C to + 25 ° C. Periodically moisten the cloth with warm water (it should not be allowed to dry out).
As soon as the seeds hatch, you can transfer pepper on the windowsill.
We need to prepare several containers in advance for growing pepper... Each pepper needs its own house, a separate wide and deep enough pot (so that the plant's rhizome is spacious and comfortable).
Do not forget about the drainage layer (fine gravel, expanded clay or broken small pieces of red brick will do).
You can plant seeds at one of the most convenient periods for you:
For peppers, it is better to purchase ready-made soil (“Terra-Vita” or “Ogorodnik”). This soil is already enriched with essential microelements and does not contain harmful microorganisms.
If you decide to use ordinary garden soil, ignite it first with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate, then pour it over with water. Or prepare an enriched soil:
Sod land is best taken from the place where meadow clover grows. Ash must be added to any soil (2 glasses of ash for every 10 kg of soil). Peppers are extremely sensitive to soil salt and acidity levels. Add dolomite flour or lime to the soil (take 16 grams of the substance for 1 kg of soil).
You can use special hydrogels. They are made for home gardening. When hydrogels mix with the soil, they swell, absorb excess water and simultaneously loosen the soil, retaining nutrients.
To wait for the first shoots of pepper on the windowsill, you need to be patient. Peppers germinate after 1-2 weeks.
If the plant stubbornly does not want to germinate, increase the length of daylight hours (extend additional lighting from 7 am to 9 pm).
Picking. Transplanting seedlings into a more spacious dwelling (with root shortening). The shortened root begins to branch out and develop more violently.
The rhizome after the pick becomes stronger, wraps around and holds the earthen ball better, and the homemade pepper itself on the windowsill brings more harvest. Dive process:
In order for the pepper to grow large, fertile, it must be transplanted and grown in small capacious buckets or large ceramic bowls.
Before diving, gradually accustom the young sprout to more severe conditions (gradually take it out into fresh air, increasing the walking time).
But make sure that the small pepper does not fall under drafts and the effect of a low, destructive temperature for it (below + 13 ° C).
|Watering||As needed||Pepper on the windowsill should be watered with settled warm water (water temperature + 30 ° C).Sprinkle the pepper with warm water daily. To prevent the plant from overheating during the winter heating season, cover the battery with a damp cloth. Remember to loosen the soil constantly.|
|Lighting||In winter, daylight hours should be 12 hours||Periodically turn the plant with different sides to the window. Fluorescent lamps will work with the usual white spectrum. Avoid direct sunlight.|
|Temperature||Day + 25 ° - + 27 ° С Night +10 ° - + 15 ° С||In the summer, it is good to keep the pepper on the balcony, in the winter, transfer it to the windows in the south. Beware of drafts and sudden temperature fluctuations.|
|Top dressing||Fertilize once every two weeks after watering||You can feed the peppers on the windowsill with purchased nitrogen fertilizers for indoor flowers. Or make a nutrient solution (3 liters of water and 6 tablespoons of ash). As a top dressing, you can prepare decoctions of nettle, plantain, clover. It is very beneficial for peppers.|
The plant may suffer from a lack of minerals. How to grow peppers in the most favorable conditions? Just monitor the condition of its leaves and apply the necessary fertilizer with a suitable composition in a timely manner:
You can not use potassium salt, potassium chloride (their composition with an excess of chlorine is harmful to the roots of the pepper). But the excess nitrogen is not terrible for pepper.
Most domestic peppers are self-pollinated plants. By the way, they can also be pollinated. Therefore, try to keep different varieties of peppers apart from each other.
When the first fruits appear, do not overload the plant - leave up to 4-5 fruits on it.
For this we select red, ripe fruits. Cut the pepper neatly in the circle of the stalk and very carefully remove the seed-bearing, holding it by the stalk.
We devote the next 4 days to drying the seed crop at a temperature from + 25 ° C to + 30 ° C. And we separate the seeds. Store them in a paper bag in a warm, dark place.
The maximum shelf life of seeds is 5 years.
It is necessary to transplant pepper on the windowsill once a year. He wants new, fresh land for a richer harvest (after all, he has already taken everything useful from the old soil). Change the land completely to fresh.
Transplant the plant carefully, being careful not to injure the root system with an earthy clod.
And after two years of the pepper's life, it already needs to be changed. It is a biennial plant and will readily pass the baton to younger, stronger peppers.
See you soon, dear readers!
Honored gardener, specialist practitioner Klimtseva Luiza Nilovna shares her experience in growing tomatoes.
Experience in growing tomatoes near St. Petersburg
Now, probably, there is no such garden plot or summer cottage where tomatoes would not grow in a greenhouse, a greenhouse or even in the open ground in the summer. Of course, the results of their cultivation are different: someone picks up bright tomatoes with a unique aroma in buckets, while others do not have enough harvest for a summer salad. I want to tell you about my many years of experience in growing this interesting culture in our northern climate, which was previously considered a southerner. Now we can have red tomatoes every year.
The timing of sowing seeds for seedlings and the timing of planting it in the ground
They depend on many factors, i.e. every gardener has an individual approach here. According to the standard of the 40-50s, the age of seedlings of determinant varieties was 60 days, of indeterminate ones - 70-75 days. At that time, the assortment of tomato varieties was very limited. Now gardeners also have superdeterminate varieties and hybrids that can bloom after the 5th leaf (at the age of 45-50 days), determinant ones can bloom after the 5th or 7th leaf, indeterminate ones - after the 9th or 11th sheet. This means that the gardener must take into account many factors: what varieties he will grow and when to plant them in the ground what will be the illumination when growing seedlings and what will be the temperature of the seedlings closely or very freely what area of nutrition and whether the soil is good. But the most important factor that determines the sowing time is the time of planting in the ground.
For example, I plant seedlings in a greenhouse on May 1-5. I grow indeterminate hybrids of Dutch and Russian selection. Since in my apartment, where seedlings of peppers, tomatoes and cucumbers grow, there are only two fluorescent lamps for illumination, I know that the seedlings will not bloom early, although I fulfill all other conditions. Such hybrids can be planted with the first buds that appear, some with a blossoming brush, which means I boldly give them 70-75 days from the day of germination, i.e. seedlings should appear on February 15th. By sowing, I create such conditions that they germinate in 2-3 days.
I also grow determinant varieties and hybrids, which I also plant in a greenhouse on May 1-5. I define the term for growing seedlings for them in 55-60 days, which means that the tomatoes should rise on March 4-5. There is another guideline: before flowering, tomatoes grow for about 8 weeks, and from flowering to fruiting, it also takes 8 weeks.
You can often hear this opinion: it is better to sow tomato seeds later - in mid-late March - spring is gaining strength, there will be sun, light, and the plants, supposedly, will catch up in development. I invite every gardener in their area to record the weather from February to May. Maybe somewhere in March and April is really very sunny. In our North-West region, there is a rare spring like this. Usually in March and the first two decades of April in St. Petersburg it is cloudy, rain, snow. Conversely, February is sunny and frosty. Those gardeners who do not have backlighting at all suffer especially in such a spring.
And here is another example from the experience of my friend, she is a biologist by training. She lives in an apartment where the sun never comes, she is cold - the temperature does not rise above + 13 ° C. And what could she do? She sowed seeds of all varieties at the end of January, the senets stood on heating pads, germinated in February, lit up as best she could. At the end of April, she took the seedlings to the site, at the beginning of May she planted them in a greenhouse, and then in the summer she collected a large harvest of red fruits. When you see her seedlings, and then the harvest, the question involuntarily arises: "Where does that come from?"
So I am very flexible about the sowing time, the tomato is such a plastic plant that it will yield a harvest in any situation. But northerners and residents of our region should remember that frosts are still possible at the end of the first decade of June, and in mid-August there are also frosts.
I have a glass greenhouse around the perimeter, the roof is made of "Stable" film, without heating. By the end of April, the soil in the greenhouse is already ripe, and if its temperature is + 14 ° C, or even better + 16 ° C, it lasts for several days, I start planting. It often happens on May 1-5, but it all depends on the spring. I make a second shelter in the greenhouse with lutrasil covering material (17 g / m2). In our area, according to my many years of observations, always at the end of April and until May 9-13, there is sunny weather without wind and rain. The temperature outside during the day ranges from +18 to + 25 ° С. During these days, the seedlings have already taken root, the buds are opening.
And from May 14-15, suddenly there is a sharp cold snap - rain and snow, before snowfall. But my plants are no longer afraid. I cover with lutrasil (17g / m2) in two layers, and whoever has a denser covering material (30 g / m2) - then in one layer - even better. It is not necessary to take them off during the day. This has been tested in practice, but if you cover the film, you need to remove it or open it from the sides.
After 3-4 days, real spring comes again, but there are recurrent frosts ahead from the first days of June until the end of the decade, and up to -5-6 ° C happens. Again I am making a second shelter in the greenhouse, and many gardeners put kerosene lamps, candles, kerosene lamps, electric bulbs, electric batteries at night. It is most difficult to get a full harvest outdoors and in small greenhouses. I plant over-grown seedlings in open ground, which I grow in a greenhouse, after June 10 with 1-2 blossoming inflorescences and even with fruits, The yield per square meter is less than in a greenhouse, since on August 15-16 I have -1 at night -2 ° C.
But this happens in May, but for now let's consider the February and March concerns.
Preparing seeds for sowing and soil for seedlings
If I bought seeds of hybrids in a company store and in a branded package, then I just soak and harden before sowing. But I carefully process my seeds of varieties or purchased somewhere else. I plant seedlings in the greenhouse early, which means they need to be hardened. I start hardening with seeds. Diseases are transmitted with seeds, and life has forced scientists and practitioners to take preventive measures.
a) Warm up in an oven at 60 ° C for three hours, if possible. Or disinfect with a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes and rinse immediately. I wrap the seeds in gauze bags, and after potassium permanganate I wash them under running water.
b) Hold in trace elements according to the instructions or in a solution of ash. I prepare the solution as follows: pour 2 tablespoons of ash with 1 liter of hot water at a temperature of + 40 ... + 45 ° С. Insist for a day, stirring. Drain the solution and hold the seeds in bags for 3-6 hours. If the concentration of the solution is made weaker (1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water), then you need to hold it for 12 hours. After processing with microelements or ash, I do not wash the seeds.
c) I put on germination at an air temperature of + 20 ... + 25 ° С.
d) As soon as a few seeds are picked, I put them in the refrigerator for quenching. In my refrigerator + 1 ... + 3 ° С, I keep the seeds there for three days. You, too, must measure all the shelves of the refrigerator with a thermometer. Allowed 0 ... + 3 ° С, but on condition that you did not germinate the seeds, but only soaked them. We have gardeners-practitioners who put wet seeds in the snow for a day, they then germinate very quickly. I do not use growth stimulants.
Then I start to prepare the soil. From the balcony I bring it in in advance, frozen,
so that it thaws itself, "heals". 5-7 days before sowing, I make mixtures, add fertilizers and fill wooden boxes 6-7 cm high, their length and width are arbitrary. There are many options for mixtures, mainly peat is used. But in any of your options, determine the acidity. For tomatoes pH 5.5-6.5. Gardeners often make mistakes:
1) without determining the acidity of the soil, they are poured there without measure of ash or lime, or dolomite flour.
2) the purchased black, beautiful peat mixture may lack nitrogen and phosphorus. Therefore, most practitioners make their own soil mixtures.
Many years ago there was no abundance of peat mixtures in stores, so the gardeners were not lazy to make the sod land themselves, which is a blessing for plants.
Here are options for soil with sod land: 1/3 of the volume - sod land, 1/3 - humus, 1/3 - peat (1 tablespoon of azophoska, 3 tablespoons of simple superphosphate, 1 glass of water were added to a bucket of such a mixture).
About 5-6 years ago, I made the following mixture: 2/3 of the volume - soil from borage, 1/3 - three-year compost (1 glass of ash, 3 tablespoons of simple superphosphate, 2 tablespoons of azophoska was added to the bucket of the mixture).
When the micro-greenhouse appeared on sale, "Zhivaya Zemlya", "Rostok", a coconut briquette, began to use them. For example, in the following proportion: 1 part of three-year compost, 1/4 - "Sprout" or "Living Earth" (I add 1 tablespoon of double superphosphate, 1 tablespoon of azophoska to the bucket of the mixture).
Or like this: 1 part of a three-year compost, 1/4 - a microsteam or coconut briquette (I add 2 tablespoons of double superphosphate and 1 tablespoon of azofoska to a bucket of mixture).
I mix the prepared soil mixture thoroughly, cover it with a film for 1-2 days or pour it into a bucket and close it tightly too. 2-3 days before sowing, I fill the boxes with this soil and spill it with hot water. If you bought soil, it is better to spill it with hot potassium permanganate of a dark color. I cover the drawers with foil, put them in a warm place. By the time of sowing, the soil will evenly warm up, "heal".
Growing seedlings in an apartment
In order for the plants to grow healthy, strong, so that they produce a full-fledged harvest, it is necessary to provide all their needs for water, soil, light and heat. I studied the works of North-West practitioners P.Z. Stukanov, A.M. Mazenkov, A.I. Mishorkin, as well as scientists O.A. Ganichkina, Sh.G. Bekseeva, I.B. Garanko. This is how the picture of the temperature regime when growing tomatoes looks like (each of them has developed temperature regime tables):
- after germination for a week during the day + 1 ... + 18 ° С, at night + 6 ... + 14 ° С
- then we create + 20 ... + 25 ° С during the day, + 10 ... + 16 ° С at night.
For adult plants planted in a greenhouse, + 18 ° C on cloudy days, and + 16 ° C on very cloudy days.
This is what I do. I put the seedlings in the boxes in the bathroom, the temperature there is + 25 ° C. Seedlings appear quickly, and I immediately transfer the seedlings to the table by the window. The window has been thoroughly washed by this time. I put one fluorescent lamp above the seedlings, and a room thermometer next to them. During the day, I create a temperature of + 13 ... + 15 ° C (the heaters have been removed from the frame, the heating battery is covered with a blanket). At night, I put the boxes in the refrigerator, where the temperature is + 10 ° C. In the morning I urgently expose to the window. I create such a regime for a week. I light up on a cloudy day. Then I create warmth for the seedlings: during the day + 20 ... + 23 ° С, and at night + 16 ... + 18 ° С, i.e. the blanket is removed from the battery, the window is insulated.
In 1995, in the newspaper "6 acres" S.F. Gavrish published a basis for the temperature regime for growing tomatoes for gardeners. If this regime is followed, then gardeners in any year will be with tomatoes.
The optimum temperature for germination is + 24 ... + 26 ° С, at temperatures below + 10 ° С the seeds do not germinate. After the emergence of two true leaves at the seedlings, the temperature must be reduced to + 18 ... + 20 ° С during the day and to + 10 ... + 14 ° С at night. Such a temperature regime helps the inflorescence that is being laid at this time to grow more branched, with a large number of flowers. When the first buds appear, the temperature is maintained + 17 ... + 18 ° С during the day, + 16 ° С at night.
“The optimum air and soil temperature for tomato is largely determined by the illumination and the content of carbon dioxide in the air: in sunny weather + 22 ... + 25 ° С, in cloudy + 18 ° С, at night + 16 ° С.
In early spring, when the illumination is still insufficient, the daytime temperature is + 17 ... + 19 ° С, in very cloudy + 15 ° С, at night + 12 ° С.
When the temperature rises above + 25 ° C, the activity of photosynthesis decreases, at + 30 ... + 32 ° C, a significant decrease in plant growth is already observed, and the pollen becomes sterile. The optimum soil temperature is + 20 ... + 25 ° С, and at temperatures below + 14 ° С, the synthesis of substances necessary for the growth and development of buds slows down. Tomatoes have such a pattern - the higher the temperature, the faster ripening occurs, the inflorescence is less branched, the fruits are smaller, the internodes are longer, which is what we get an early harvest, but lower. "
Before sowing, I spill the boxes with warm water again, make grooves 1-1.5 cm deep, the distance between the grooves is 4-5 cm. In these grooves I lay out the seeds at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. I cover it with the same soil, lightly compact it with a spoon. Sprinkle on top with a thin layer of dry soil. I cover the drawers with foil and put them in the bathroom. As soon as single white "loops" appear, I put them to the window. Cotyledon leaves will unfold - sprinkle with washed, calcined river sand around each plant. This is prevention against the "black leg". But if you rarely sow - 3 x 5 cm, and the soil is clean, then there will be no "black leg". I pour warm water +20? C between the rows.The first time is 5-7 days after germination, it depends on the dryness in the apartment. If it is very hot in the apartment, then you have to water it after three days, especially for those who sow in small containers, because the soil dries out quickly in them. Sometimes I spray the seedlings with warm water from a sprayer. I do not carry out top dressing before picking (transplanting seedlings into large containers).
I start picking when the second real leaf appears. I take the same soil as for sowing. For picking I use wooden boxes, but their height is 10-12 cm. I rarely use different types of pots, because the soil in them cools faster. I give the distance between the plants at least 15 x15 cm, put the boxes with seedlings for 3-4 days in a place where there is no sun, and then again on the sunny side. When picking, I try to deepen the seedling to the cotyledonous leaves. It is not that difficult because seedlings not elongated. Often gardeners ask the question: "I swooped down, but they both froze and sit still?" The reasons are as follows:
a) strongly elongated seedlings. I had to put the stem in a ring and fill it up to the cotyledons. It takes time for the root to grow on the stem. The plant seems to have stopped developing
b) a lot of ash was poured into the soil, it became highly alkaline, and the plants do not receive nutrition
c) it is cold in the apartment, and after transplantation, new root hairs do not develop, especially in large containers. The soil turns sour. If you dive into large containers (0.8-1 liter), then the soil temperature should be + 20 ... + 25 ° С. The temperature can be reduced only after new 2-3 leaves have grown.
You cannot teach watering seedlings, tk. it all depends on many factors. If it is very dry in the apartment, you will have to water more often in small containers, the soil dries out faster than in wooden boxes. Sometimes they dive directly into large 1 liter pots to grow a powerful plant. I have to repeat myself: often gardeners make a mistake - at low temperatures in the apartment and with frequent watering, the soil will turn sour, and the roots will "suffocate" and will not develop. In large pots, loosen more often. I water so that the soil is slightly moist, i.e. neither dry nor wet. If the plant has 3 leaves - one watering rate, if 5-6 leaves - another. I loosen it periodically so that there is no crust. During the growing season of seedlings, I do not add soil. I add it only if the oa has started to stretch out or has collected 6-7 leaves, and I plant it in the greenhouse early, i.e. with a bedding, as it were, I retard the growth of seedlings.
There are many options for feeding. In the apartment, I do not water with organic matter. But if I grow seedlings in a greenhouse, then once I feed them with slurry 1:10. Feeding plants, like watering, is difficult to teach. There is an order of minimum nutrient N: P: K (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium) at all stages of development:
- at the beginning of the growing season, the ratio N-P-K = 1: 2: 0.5
- during fruiting N-P-K = 0.5: 1.5: 2.
Phosphorus plays an important role at the beginning of the growing season, especially during flowering. At the beginning of the growing season, the ratio of N-P-K + 1: 2: 0.5. Let's look at a few examples.
Azofoska - its formula: N = 16%, P = 17%, K = 17%, i.e. N-P-K = 1: 1: 1. We need N-P-K = 1: 2: 0.5, i.e. at the beginning of the growing season, before flowering, there is not enough phosphorus. But I put it into the soil when I made the mixture. This means that when feeding before flowering, I can feed once every 10-15 days with Azophos - 1 tablespoon per bucket of water.
Kemira station wagon. Formula: N = 32%, P = 14%, K = 54% and 7 trace elements. There is clearly not enough phosphorus here. This means that you need to make a superphosphate extractor and water it, but if you have added superphosphate to the soil mixture, then you will not have to do the extractor. Now they sell a lot of fertilizers for feeding seedlings with correctly formulated formulas. Crystal-yellow - N-P-K = 13: 40: 13, readily soluble fertilizer, you can make a solution - 10 g per 10 liters of water and use with each watering.
A great practice in growing tomatoes A.I. Mishorkin makes the following solution: 1 teaspoon of ammonium nitrate + 2 teaspoons of double superphosphate + 0.5 teaspoon of potassium nitrate +1 teaspoon of magnesium sulfate per 10 liters of water. He waters the plants with it instead of just watering it with water. Often gardeners complain: "The leaves of the seedlings are twisted into a tube." And it happens to me. Several factors affect here, one of them is the lack of phosphorus. For the last three years I have been using fertilizers from the Buisk plant when feeding seedlings. They dissolve easily, the formulas are formulated correctly. If you do not have the opportunity to purchase such fertilizers, use Azofoska, but once the seedlings must be fed with microelements according to the instructions. No trace elements - feed with ash once. Many years ago there was not a large range of fertilizers, but we grew tomatoes, maybe only a little worse than now.
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Both white and red cabbage are cold-resistant, they are grown through seedlings. Growing cabbage seedlings in an apartment is not very promising, because she loves light, coolness, high air humidity, and it is dark in our apartments, too hot and dry for cabbage. The seedlings grow frail, stretch out strongly and even lie down. Naturally, nothing worthwhile will grow from such seedlings.
It is better to sow cabbage a little later directly into the greenhouse, but just cover it with extra foil. If you cannot cover the greenhouse before May, then make a small greenhouse in a sunny place and sow not only cabbage, but everything you need in it.
The appropriate time for sowing cabbage for seedlings is early March – April, depending on the region. For the North-West, in particular, this is the beginning of April. Frosts are on the soil. If you put the box with the sown seedlings on a stool or on a board, which you hang on rope loops at the end of the greenhouse, like a swing, then the seedlings will be out of reach of frost. In the same way, but a little later, you can sow on seedlings beets, cauliflower, zucchini and cucumbers, flower seedlings. Boxes with seeded seedlings should be wrapped with foil to keep warm and moisture.
Early white cabbage is usually recommended to be sown for seedlings in February – March. It ripens approximately 90–100 days after germination. The feeding area of early cabbage is small - 30 x 30 cm. In June it is ready, which is why it is often called June cabbage. For an unheated greenhouse in the northern regions, this period is unrealistic.
And later, sowing early cabbage does not make any sense, so I generally do not recommend you to grow early cabbage in the Northwest. Moreover, it is suitable only for salads and consumption in blanched form, cabbage soup is not cooked from it, and even more so it is not fermented. For salads, it is much easier to grow collard greens such as pak choy, Peking cabbage or Chinese cabbage.
Medium-ripening white cabbage is usually recommended to be sown for seedlings at the end of April (or at the beginning of May directly into the ground). It ripens for about 120 days, the feeding area is 45 x 45 cm. Medium-ripening white cabbage is universal, that is, it is suitable for salads, pickling, used for pies and cabbage soup. But it is not stored for a long time.
Late varieties of cabbage are recommended to be sown for seedlings in early April, since it ripens for 150–160 days. It requires a large feeding area, so the seedlings should be planted in the ground according to the 60 x 60 cm scheme.You can sow late cabbage at the end of April, since in regions with a long and warm autumn, it can be removed even in mid-October after frosts.
Late varieties of cabbage are intended for long-term storage. Immediately after harvesting, they are not suitable for fermentation, since they have a process of accumulation of sugars for a long time, so it is possible to ferment late varieties only after December. If you hurry, the cabbage will be soft and tasteless.
In a box at least 7 cm deep or directly into the soil in a greenhouse, sow seeds into grooves at least 2 cm deep. Cabbage seeds are large, they are easy to spread at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. The soil should be neutral, moist and sufficiently nutritious.
You can prepare the soil for the box from a mixture of peat (one bucket), sand (half a bucket) and ash (a liter jar). Mix well, fill the box, pour over with water. Make grooves and spread seeds in them, cover with soil, compact the soil after sowing.
To prevent the soil from losing heat and moisture, the crops should be covered with foil. From the moment of emergence, the film should be removed and the cabbage should be watered regularly, but not poured, so that the soil is constantly moderately moist. The main thing at this stage is the neutral reaction of the soil.
In addition, excessive extension of the hypocotal knee should not be allowed. Often this happens not only due to poor lighting, but also due to too dense seedlings. The seedlings are cramped, and they begin to stretch. At this moment, the lower part of the stalk may dry out.
In this case, black leg disease cannot be avoided, since the seedlings will weaken and will not be able to resist the disease. It is better with thickened crops to remove part of the plants immediately, there will be less trouble later, and the remaining plants to huddle.
In most regions of the country, the crop is grown in shelters. Yield indicators directly depend on the presence of heat, good lighting, regular watering and feeding. In open ground conditions in areas of risky farming, it is impossible to provide plants with comfortable conditions. Greenhouses and hotbeds, tunnels and arcs with film or fabric cover help out. Peppers with a long yield period, bearing fruit until autumn, grow especially well in such conditions.
"Pros" of growing in greenhouses:
But in order to get an excellent harvest and surprise relatives and neighbors, it is required to observe the basic techniques of agricultural technology, to provide the culture in shelters with optimal conditions for growth and fruiting. The main "minus" of greenhouse cultivation is the labor intensity of work, the need to control the level of humidity, temperature indicators. But all the troubles pay off with high yields, the main thing is to choose the right varieties for cultivation in shelters.
It is difficult to grow strong seedlings of peppers at home without hardening. Before transferring the plants to the dacha, they need to be prepared, otherwise the seedlings will be sick for a long time, they will not take root well and give a weak harvest.
Peppers are hardened several weeks before planting. Plants are gradually accustomed to fresh air, leaving them on the windowsill during airing, first for 5, and then for 10 minutes.
After that, you can briefly take out the pots of seedlings to the balcony. Keep an eye on the weather, as cold air and bright sunlight are harmful to immature plants. Be sure to bring the seedlings into the room at night.
After a few days, the pots can be left outdoors until evening. If signs of wilting are not noticeable, there are no sunburns, then the seedlings are ready to move to a new place.