Grouse: species, reproduction and agricultural technology


Primroses in your garden. Part 4

Read the previous part of the article: Liverwort: species, reproduction and cultivation


Hazel grouse

Another original flower is more and more common in garden plots. Even among the huge variety of garden flowers, it stands out for its unusual look, it seems exotic. Our gardeners especially like imperial hazel grouse and chess grouse.

The name of this genus comes from the Latin word for chessboard. It is given for the variegated color of flowers of some species, resembling a checkerboard. According to another version - from the Latin fritillus, which means a goblet or vessel for dice, and it is associated not with color, but with the shape of the flower.

The plant received the Russian name "hazel grouse" for the similarity of flowers strewn with multi-colored specks with feathers of a forest bird of the grouse family.

The first mention of a flower in literature (16th century) is associated with several species of hazel grouse from different places at once. Half a century later, the list has already increased to three dozen. Subsequently, the distance from the European centers of cultivation of ornamental plants to the places where new species of hazel grouse were found constantly increased and has now reached China, the flora of which has been little studied and extremely interesting. According to the last revision, carried out in 1997, the genus Fritillaria is represented by 179 species, many of which have subspecies and forms.

All species of hazel grouses are attractive, although their beauty is not obvious to everyone. Understanding it comes gradually. Over time, the eyes get tired of the excessive brightness and pretentiousness of many garden flowers, beloved in the beginning. And in hazel grouses, the color of bell flowers is calm: brown, yellow, green, purple, sometimes almost black, moreover, it is remarkably complemented by the elegance of the whole plant.

These are perennial plants that overwinter and partly multiply by means of underground bulbs. Hazel grouses are typical ephemeroids. Their bulbs are renewed annually, they are composed of lower scales, usually do not have integumentary scales. In some representatives of this genus, the bulbs are tiled, friable with numerous small scales; in the hazel grouse of Kamchatka and other forest East Asian species, the scales are strongly swollen and look like grains of rice.

They are easily separated from the bottom and take root. In this way, they look like baby onions. In reality, these are swollen bases of the lower scales, in which the upper part remained thin and dried out, as evidenced by the scar. The replacement bulb in these species is carried out on a thick stolon.

D. G. Hession writes: “All hazel grouses have narrow leaves, and drooping bell-shaped flowers are located in the upper part of the straight peduncle. This is where the similarities between the different species end. ” Yes, the similarities end and the diversity begins, which can be observed and appreciated every year in April - May.

Species of hazel grouse

Grouse imperial

The hazel grouses are very different: both pompous tall, and modest short ones, moreover, they are often very original in color. All species of hazel grouse are distinguished by their special color of flowers - from white, yellow, orange - to reddish and red-violet.

The color spectrum of flowers, even within the same species, can have a lot of transitional shades. Some species of hazel grouse have been grown in gardens since the Middle Ages. And although at present more than 30 wild species of hazel grouse have been introduced into the culture, not all of them equally attract the attention of both professional flower growers and amateurs. Garden forms of hazel grouse and imperial hazel grouse are widely used in culture. Known to many growers and the hazel grouse. Such species as Russian hazel grouse, Kamchatka hazel grouse, Radde hazel grouse are grown very rarely.

Imperial hazel grouse - a powerful plant with very strong stems from 60 to 120 cm high. At the top of the peduncle is a crest or a cap of beautiful green leaves. Under them - inflorescences, similar to an umbrella and consisting of large drooping bell-shaped or cupped flowers 5-7 cm in size. The color of the flowers can be very different: yellow, red, white, orange; and lighter and more saturated color, and with veins, and with a border.

You can't take your eyes off the flowering hazel grouses planted in a group against the background of the lawn or between the bushes! You can admire them endlessly, only you should not smell - the plant has a very unpleasant smell. But, perhaps, precisely because of this shortcoming, the hazel grouse gained fame as a plant that scares off mice and other rodents. Tall hazel grouse is not suitable for rocky hills.

Low grades include chess hazel grouse with checkered petals, also a very cute and quite popular flower. With a height of 30 to 50 cm, it is very good for rockeries and also looks good against the background of the lawn. Flowers in a white-lilac box and white-lilac in a brown box are especially beautiful. Pure white bells look very delicate.

Grouse Mikhailovsky became popular after it was rediscovered in Turkey by the British in 1983. Since then, it has been widely found in culture. It is notable for its rather early and long flowering, unusual color and shape of the flower, and the shape of the fruit.

Agrotechnics of hazel grouses

Grouse imperial

There is an opinion that hazel grouse is an unpretentious plant. This is not entirely true. The first duty is to follow the planting rules. The bulbs are planted only in autumn, from mid-August to early September.

You cannot plant later: the plants will not grow properly and may not bloom next year. The place for hazel grouses is chosen sunny or in partial shade. The soil should be rich and well-drained. If you bury the bulbs or plant them in damp, low-lying places, then there will be no shoots at all. Handle the fleshy scale bulb with care and attention. At the bottom of the hole prepared for hazel grouse, coarse river sand is poured. Fine quarry sand is not suitable, it negatively affects the bulbs, young roots rot in it.

Also, in order to avoid decay, the bulbs in the hole are best placed on the barrel. The planting depth is calculated as for all bulbs - it should be three times the height of the bulb. After laying the bulb, sand and organic fertilizers are added to the hole, preferably ready-made flower soils, clean or mixed with soil. The hazel grouse is watered, like all bulbous ones, but it must be remembered that the bulbs of faded plants should not be in dry soil, therefore, plants need watering 1-2 times a month.

They look after hazel grouses in the same way as for lilies. They are fed twice with dry fertilizers. They feed for the first time in the third decade of April: take 1 tablespoon of fertilizer "Agricola for flowering plants" and nitrophoska on a bucket of humus, scatter 3-5 kg ​​per 1 m² with a layer of 3-5 cm.

The second time is fed after flowering: 1 tablespoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are scattered on 1 m². You can add wood ash under the plants during flowering. It is scattered around, and after that the plant is mulched with peat or humus (with a layer of up to 3 cm).

Grouse begins to bloom in the second half of May, flowering is short - up to 18-20 days. Faded hazel grouses still delight the eye for some time thanks to their beautiful leaves, but by the first decade of July the plant loses its decorative effect, and its entire ground part must be cut off. In order not to forget where the hazel grouses grow and not to accidentally dig up the soil in this place, it should be noted somehow.

Reproduction of hazel grouse

Hazel grouse in the garden

The hazel grouses are propagated by dividing the nest of the bulbs. Divide the bush every 4-5 years. Immediately after flowering, the ground part is cut off, the bulbs are removed from the ground and separated.

Planting is carried out only in the fall. Some gardeners plant hazel grouse in the spring and are disappointed not to get seedlings in the summer. They should not be, they will appear only next year in the spring. But the planted bulbs need to be watered a little.

It is very difficult to propagate hazel grouse by seeds. Sown in July, the seeds germinate only the next year in spring, and the plant will bloom only in the fifth year.

In my garden of hazel grouse, I grow imperial, Persian, chess and Mikhailovsky. I tried to grow the latter species from seeds, but, unfortunately, unsuccessfully and therefore acquired bulbs. I still give preference to undersized species, since they grow faster and are more suitable for the landscape created on the site. Based on my experience, I dare to refute the advertising statement that sellers have about the benefits of planting hazel grouses for scaring away moles, thanks to the specific smell of their bulbs. Alas, just as the mole “walked” in the garden, it continues to do so, despite the numerous plantings of bulbs in the places of its “walks”.

Read the next part of the article: Growing crocuses →

Svetlana Seregina


Application of dissected rudbeckia

Due to the fact that the flowering of rudbeckia begins in the middle of summer and lasts mainly until the first frost, it immediately won a place in the gardens. Bright flowers attract attention and delight the eye.

The plant goes well with other decorative flowers and bushes, looks great in compositions. It is used to decorate parks, gardens. Low-growing species are often planted in flower beds. Bushes look beautiful near gazebos and near houses.

More information can be found in the video.


Grouse Aurora

In the spring, you cannot meet a more majestic plant than hazel grouse. For the resemblance of flowers to a royal headdress, hazel grouse is respectfully called the royal crown. In Europe, the flower was called "Mary's tears". According to legend, upon learning that her son, Jesus Christ, was crucified on the cross, the Virgin Mary wept bitterly. Together with her, a beautiful flower became sad and lowered its lovely bells. Since then, drops of nectar hanging at the base of the flowers resemble tears and make the plant especially touching.

Nevertheless, hazel grouse has a "light character", therefore, it grows everywhere in gardens, without causing trouble to their owners. Flowering begins in mid-May along with tulips and daffodils and lasts about 3 weeks. The leaves die off by mid-July.

Plants are frost-hardy and usually winter well, but in winters with little snow, it is better to cover them with straw, reeds, spruce branches or fallen leaves. The price is for 1 hazel grouse bulb.
Mailing of this product is carried out in AUTUMN.

Conditions... The attitude to light in different species and varieties of hazel grouse is very different. There are ardent sun lovers who do not tolerate shading, but at the same time there are species that feel very good in partial shade. The requirements for the soil are also different, most grow well only on sufficiently fertile, fresh, drained, loose, with good air permeability soils, with an acidity close to neutral. Grouse Russian, Ussuri, Tunberg, mustachioed and Kamchatka can grow in very moist peat soil. All species winter well under mulch and a layer of snow. In severe snowless winters, it may not be enough for thermophilic species of mulch, bulbs may freeze out.

Landing... Planting is carried out in August-September. One and a half to two months before planting, the soil is dug up, while fertilizing it with peat or compost. Dense clay soils must be loosened with sand, too acidic - lime. The distance between plants is from 10-15 cm for low varieties and up to 25-30 cm for high varieties. The planting depth of the bulbs depends on the density of the soil and is approximately 5-8 cm for small species and 15-25 cm for large-bulb species. It is useful to add some river sand to the bottom of the hole. If the soil is dry, then it is watered, and then the bulbs are placed in the holes, slightly turning them on their side, and covered with soil. Mulching with peat after planting is mandatory.

When planting seeds, the soil must be prepared in advance, dug up and enriched with organic matter (peat or humus). Seeds are scattered into shallow furrows 6-10 cm wide and embedded to a depth of about 1 cm. Then they are watered and mulched. The emergence of seedlings can be expected only in the spring of next year. Since the seedlings will grow in this place for several years, they will need annual mineral fertilizing, which is applied twice a season - at the beginning of regrowth in spring and at the time of bulb formation in summer.

Care... Shade-tolerant species usually need regular watering. In hot dry weather, you can water all hazel grouses. Loosening is permissible only very shallow and combined with weeding; it is carried out in the spring after the snow melts, as well as after watering and rains.

For top dressing, you can use only inorganic fertilizers or well-rotted composts. The first feeding is done in April, using a mixture of humus 4-5 kg ​​/ m² and a special complex fertilizer for flowering plants. The second top dressing is carried out after flowering - it includes 20-30 g / m² of superphosphate and potassium sulfate.

If you do not plan to receive seeds, then after flowering, the ovaries are removed so that the bulbs can form normally. If you leave mature seeds, the bulb becomes smaller and does not bloom the next year.

Some species of hazel grouse, which are native to arid regions, require annual bulbs to be harvested. But most species and varieties can stay in one place for two to seven years. The main signal that the bulbs need replanting is the weakening of flowering. Dig up the bulbs when the foliage begins to turn yellow. They are dried, cleaned of soil, plant debris and carefully sorted out, rejecting sick and damaged ones. The sorted planting material is kept in a warm place in sand, peat or sawdust. This is especially necessary for thermophilic species in cold and rainy summers, otherwise they stop blooming and may fall out altogether.

When grown as a houseplant, the transplant is done every two years.

In the fall, when the weather is stable and cold, the planting of hazel grouses must be mulched. The layer of mulch should be large enough and can reach 30 cm. This technique not only helps to endure the winter cold, but will prevent too early germination of the bulbs, which means damage to the seedlings by spring frosts. After the onset of stable warm weather, the mulch is thrown back.

Very few diseases and pests are affected. Bulb rot is sometimes found. If a small part is affected, then you can try to cut out the damaged area, and treat the remaining onion with a fungicide or sprinkle the cut with ash, crushed coal. Of the pests of the aerial part, it is worth mentioning the lily beetle, snails, slugs, and the bulbs can damage wireworms. The laying of pesticides in the form of granules, for example, Provotox, helps from underground pests. Leaf-eating pests can be regularly harvested by hand, and simple traps can be set for slugs and snails. Dusting the plants, the ground under them and the perimeter of the site with wood ash also helps from them.

Application... They look best when planted in groups that mimic natural curtains. Tall hazel grouses, can be planted singly. They look great in flower beds, in compositions with ornamental shrubs and conifers. Low species have proven themselves in rock gardens, rocky gardens, in the foreground of flower beds. You can grow hazel grouses in containers, including as indoor plants. Cut stalks look very original in bouquets.


Rudbeckia dissected: characteristics, types and agricultural techniques of the plant

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Rudbeckia dissected

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General information about dissected rudbeckia

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Types of rudbeckia

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Care for dissected rudbeckia

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Plant propagation

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Application of dissected rudbeckia

Rudbeckia is an unpretentious plant, so it can be easily grown in a summer cottage or in a garden. Despite the fact that she loves sunny, well-warmed places, flowering will be, even if the flower is placed in partial shade. Prefers light, loamy soil. A perennial can not be transplanted for 6-8 years.


Growing hazel grouses: how to care for flowers

If the hazel grouse is good in the garden, he does not get sick. And pests do not have time to activate by the time of its flowering. The main thing in care when growing hazel grouses is to ensure good drainage so that the site is not subject to stagnant moisture.

Low-growing species of hazel grouse are appropriate in the rock garden: they create a contrast to the cushion-shaped alpine plants. The combination with dwarf conifers is also successful.

Many species of hazel grouse form daughter bulbs, some (Kamchatka) can be propagated, like lilies, with scales. But there are also aristocrats who reproduce exclusively by seeds (seeds are sown before winter). When growing flowers of hazel grouse from flowering seeds, you can wait only a few years after sowing.

It is necessary to buy and plant hazel grouse bulbs in late August - early September. Often, hazel grouses are sold in the spring, already in bloom. The bulbs removed from the soil at the height of the growing season and left without nutrients will not have time to ripen and will weaken. Flowering will have to wait at least two years.

Florists should be warned against buying Persian hazel grouse (F. persica). Not only does it require summer heating, it is also not winter-hardy enough and is suitable only for southern regions.


Landing rules

Many gardeners love hazel grouse because it is a perennial plant, and you do not need to suffer with planting every year. It reproduces by underground bulbs, consisting of 2-6 scales, in the axils of which are the kidneys. It is from them that new bulbs develop.


Hazel grouse yellow

  • Boarding time - in September-October. If you are planting later, mulch the soil and cover with foliage for the winter. But it is impossible to plant much later, otherwise the plants will not grow or simply will not bloom.
  • Pick-up location should be sunny or partial shade.
  • Remember that any damage to the plant bulb will lead to a failure. Handle it with care and attention.
  • Before landing, it is advisable process the onions with a solution of potassium permanganate, for example, and sprinkle with charcoal.
  • Do not plant bulbs in too moist and cold soil, this can cause rotting. If there is a possibility of water stagnation at the planting site, make an embankment. It is necessary fill the bottom of the planting hole with coarse sand... Fine sand will not work - there is a risk of rotting young roots.
  • Planting depth is defined as for all bulbous: multiply the height of the bulb by 3 and plant. We plant the bulbs of low-growing hazel grouses to a depth of about 12 cm, tall ones - about 20 cm.
  • It is better to place the bulbs in the hole sideways and sprinkle with sand - this will avoid the accumulation of moisture.
  • The soil should be light and nutritious, with the addition of peat.


Grouse planting and care in the open field

Agrotechnology and transplantation of hazel grouses is performed when the plant ends the growing season.

When to transplant imperial hazel grouse - the best time to transplant a plant is late summer or early autumn. When transplanting or after purchasing the bulbs, they must be planted immediately in the ground, since the bulbs do not have scales and they dry out quickly and lose their ability to grow.

If you are unable to plant the bulbs right away, it is best to place them in a container of damp peat and place them in a cool basement. But a later planting of a plant often leads to a lack of flowering the next year.

The bulbs are planted on prepared, dug soil with many nutrients. It is necessary to immerse the bulbs to a depth of about 20 cm. Sand or peat bog is poured on the bottom. After the onion is planted and its root system is straightened. The bulbs themselves are treated with a light manganese solution before planting, this is necessary for disinfection.

The soil for the hazel grouse does not matter what kind of land you have on the site, before planting the hazel grouse, you need to add coarse sand, peat soil and humus to it. Also, the plant is good for additives in the form of ash.

The soil is moistened without allowing the soil to dry out too much. After the end of flowering, you need to water once every 30 days.


Watch the video: Saving the Strutting Sage Grouse: BYU Studies a Fragile Species


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